Showing posts with label liver health. Show all posts
Showing posts with label liver health. Show all posts

Wednesday, October 24, 2018

'The food supplement that ruined my liver'

BBC
'The food supplement that ruined my liver'
Tristan Quinn
It should have been one of the happiest days of his life. But Jim McCants looks back on his youngest son's high school graduation with mixed emotions. As he sat down next to his wife Cathleen in the university auditorium, just outside Dallas, Texas, she turned to look at him.

"She said 'Do you feel OK?'" Jim recalls. "I said, 'Yeah I feel fine, why?' 'Your face is yellow, your eyes are yellow, you look terrible.' When I looked in the mirror it was shocking."
Read More: https://www.bbc.com/news/stories-45971416

On This Blog
Current articles investigating herbal and dietary supplement-induced liver injury 

Wednesday, October 17, 2018

Combination immunotherapy may increase liver injury risk

Combination immunotherapy may increase liver injury risk
October 17, 2018
PHILADELPHIA – Patients who received treatment with multiple immunotherapy drugs had increased risks for drug-induced liver injury compared with single therapy courses, as presented at the American College of Gastroenterology Annual Meeting.

“This is a rather new subsection of drug-induced liver injury that has come to our attention since the advent of immunotherapy drugs in the treatment of various different cancers, ranging from metastatic melanoma ... to colorectal cancer and renal cell carcinoma,” Vivek Bose, MD, from the Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical Group in New Jersey, said during his presentation. 

Healio Meeting Coverage
See more from American College of Gastroenterology Annual Meeting

Wednesday, September 26, 2018

Heavy drinkers and teetotalers alike may have heightened dementia risk

Of Interest
Alcohol use disorder therapy could improve chronic liver disease outcomes
Fuster D, Samet JH. N Engl J Med. 2018;doi:10.1056/NEJMra1715733.
September 26, 2018
Details from a recently published review discussed expanded use of alcohol use disorder medications and treatments in everyday clinical practice for patients with advanced liver disease.

In HCV, alcohol use increases infection exposure and persistence, causes more extensive liver damage than the infection alone, leads to faster progression of liver fibrosis and results in higher rates of mortality. These effects are common in HBV as well, although alcohol use in patients with HBV also demonstrated an increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Along with increased fibrosis progression and an increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma, alcohol use in patients with NAFLD leads to a greater prevalence of steatosis and abnormal liver tests. In hereditary hemochromatosis, alcohol use increases fibrosis progression as well as iron overload.

“Assessment of alcohol use is appropriate for any person with liver disease, given the elevated risks of alcohol-related hepatotoxicity,” Fuster and Samet wrote. “In fact, there is no known safe threshold of alcohol consumption for patients with chronic liver disease, especially those with HCV infection, obesity, or the metabolic syndrome.”


Heavy drinkers and teetotalers alike may have heightened dementia risk 
Lisa Rapaport
(Reuters Health) - Middle-aged adults who avoid alcohol altogether, and those who consume the equivalent of seven glasses of wine or more a week are both more likely than light drinkers to develop dementia in their later years, a long-term study suggests.

Abstinence is also associated with a higher likelihood of having heart disease or diabetes, which explains part of the increased dementia risk for teetotalers, the study found. Abstinence may also be tied to dementia in people who stopped drinking due to misuse or addiction, Sabia said by email...

“Findings on abstainers should not motivate people who do not drink to start drinking alcohol due to the adverse effects of alcohol on mortality, cirrhosis of the liver and cancer,” Sabia noted. “In addition, given the detrimental effect of alcohol for several health outcomes, people who drink in an excessive manner should be encouraged to reduce their alcohol consumption.” 

Recommended Reading
Alcohol abuse kills 3 million a year, most of them men: WHO
Of all deaths attributable to alcohol, 28% were due to injuries, such as those from traffic crashes, self-harm and interpersonal violence; 21% due to digestive disorders; 19% due to cardiovascular diseases, and the remainder due to infectious diseases, cancers, mental disorders and other health conditions...

Study: Damaged liver cells undergo reprogramming to regenerate

Study: Damaged liver cells undergo reprogramming to regenerate
Sep 26, 2018 8
by Steph Adams | Science Writer

The Greek hero Prometheus was punished by being lashed to a rock and having his liver eaten each day by an eagle, a myth that hints at the extraordinary regenerative powers of the human liver. A new study offers insight into how RNA splicing generates alternate forms of the “Hippo signaling pathway” to promote liver regeneration.

Graphic by Jose Luis Vasquez, Beckman Institute

CHAMPAIGN, Ill. — In Greek mythology, Zeus punishes the trickster Prometheus by chaining him to a rock and sending an eagle to eat a portion of his liver every day, in perpetuity. It was the right organ to target – the liver has the ability to regenerate itself, though not overnight nor for eternity.

New research conducted by biochemists at the University of Illinois has determined how damaged liver cells repair and restore themselves through a signal to return to an early stage of postnatal organ development. The findings are reported in the journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology.

“The liver is a resilient organ,” said U. of I. biochemistry professor Auinash Kalsotra, who led the new research. “It can restore up to 70 percent of lost mass and function after just a few weeks.

“We know that in a healthy adult liver, the cells are dormant and rarely undergo cell division,” he said. “However, if the liver is damaged, the liver cells re-enter the cell cycle to divide and produce more of themselves.”

The human liver can become chronically damaged by toxins such as alcohol and even certain medicines, but still continue to function and self-repair, Kalsotra said.

“This research looked at what is happening at the molecular level in a damaged liver that enables it to regenerate while still performing normal functions,” he said.

Using a mouse model of a liver severely damaged by toxins, the researchers compared injured adult liver cells with healthy cells present during a stage of development just after birth. They found that injured cells undergo a partial reprograming that returns them to a neonatal state of gene expression.

The team discovered that fragments of messenger RNA, the molecular blueprints for proteins, are rearranged and processed in regenerating liver cells in a manner reminiscent of the neonatal period of development. This phenomenon is regulated through alternative splicing, a process wherein exons (expressed regions of genes) are cut from introns (intervening regions) and stitched together in various combinations to direct the synthesis of many different proteins from a single gene. These proteins can have different cellular functions or properties.

“We found that the liver cells after birth use a specific RNA-binding protein called ESRP2 to generate the right assortment of alternatively spliced RNAs that can produce the protein products necessary for meeting the functional demands of the adult liver,” said graduate student Sushant Bangru, the lead author of the study. “When damaged, the liver cells lower the quantity of ESRP2 protein. This reactivates fetal RNA splicing in what is called the ‘Hippo signaling pathway,’ giving it instructions about how to restore and repopulate the liver with new and healthy cells.”

Kalsotra described the science in mythological terms: “When Zeus’ eagle comes in for its daily snack, damaging the liver, the alternatively spliced form of Hippos come into play – repairing Prometheus’s liver so the poor guy can go through this whole punishment again the next day.”

The National Institutes of Health, March of Dimes and American Heart Association supported this
research.

The paper “Alternative splicing rewires Hippo signaling pathway in hepatocytes to promote liver regeneration” is available online and from the U. of I. News Bureau.
DOI: 10.1038/s41594-018-0129-2

https://news.illinois.edu/view/6367/698670

Blood flow forces liver growth

NEWS AND VIEWS
26 September 2018

Blood flow forces liver growth
Sina Y. Rabbany & Shahin Rafii
Increases in biomechanical forces in the liver’s blood vessels have now been shown to activate two mechanosensitive proteins. The proteins trigger blood-vessel cells to deploy regenerative factors that drive liver growth. 

The molecular pathways that initiate and sustain liver growth during development and after injury are orchestrated in part by a balanced supply of stimulatory and inhibitory factors secreted from specialized liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), which line the organ’s blood vessels14. But it is unclear how the liver vasculature senses the need to produce these endothelial-cell-derived (angiocrine) growth factors, such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and Wnt proteins, to guide proper organ growth4. In a paper in Nature, Lorenz et al.5 show how mechanical forces created by the passage of blood through the liver activate signalling pathways that promote the production of angiocrine factors and the proliferation of the organ’s main cell type, hepatocytes, in mice.

Continue reading online @ Nature

Monday, September 24, 2018

What Is a Healthy Stool ?

Of Interest - posted Feb 2018:
Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (CGH)
February 2018 Volume 16, Issue 2, Page A22
What Causes Constipation?
Constipation is usually a symptom, not a disease. Some of the most common causes of constipation are as follows....

What Does My Stool Color Or Change In Bowel Movement Mean?
On this page an overview of stool color changes due to either medications, diet, or indicate an underlying medical condition such as gallstones and liver disease is explored. For instance according to a recent article published 21 September 2018 online at Medical News Today, a yellow stool may indicate problems with the pancreas, liver, or gallbladder.

Further down this page is the famous Bristol Stool Scale, developed by UK gastroenterologists at the University of Bristol. The chart explains various stool types by identifying physical attributes and the length of time the stool remained in the colon.