Risk factors for liver cancer in the USA - HCV, HBV, excessive alcohol, diabetes/obesity and rare genetic disorders
Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in the USA
The latest issue of the American Journal of Gastroenterology investigates population-attributable fractions of risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States.
Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma include hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV, HCV), excessive alcohol consumption, rare genetic disorders and diabetes/obesity.
The population attributable fractions of these factors, however, have not been investigated in population-based studies in the United States.
Persons 68 years diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma between 1994 and 2007 were identified in the SEER-Medicare database.
Dr Tania Welzel and colleagues from Germany selected a 5% random sample of persons residing in SEER locations for comparison.
As anticipated, the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma was increased in relationship to each factor: hepatitis B and C viruses, alcohol-related disorders, rare metabolic disorders, and diabetes and/or obesity.
Population attributable fractions of all factors combined was 65%
American Journal of Gastroenterology
The doctors found that the population attributable fractions of all factors combined was 65%.
The population attributable fractions were highest among Asians, and lowest among black persons.
Among individual factors, diabetes/obesity had the greatest population attributable fractions, followed by alcohol-related disorders, hepatitis B and C viruses and rare genetic disorders.
While diabetes/obesity had the greatest population attributable fractions among both males and females, alcohol-related disorders had the second greatest population attributable fractions among males and hepatitis C viruses the second greatest among females.
Diabetes/obesity had the greatest population attributable fractions among whites and Hispanics, while hepatitis C viruses had the greatest population attributable fractions among Asians and blacks.
The second greatest population attributable fractions was alcohol-related disorders in whites, Hispanics and blacks and hepatitis B virus in Asians.
Dr Welzel's team concludes, "The dominant risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in the United States among persons 68 years differ by sex and race/ethnicity."
"Overall, eliminating diabetes/obesity could reduce the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma more than the elimination of any other factor."
Am J Gastroenterol 2013: 108: 1314–1321
20 August 2013